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發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/19 9:50:17 (8 人讀取)

Centrus and Doosan sign advanced reactor MoU

Centrus Energy Corp of the USA and Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Co Ltd of South Korea yesterday announced a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to explore cooperation in supplying the advanced reactor market.

Metal being machined at Centrus' Technology and Manufacturing Centre in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where manufacturing work for Doosan would take place (Image: Centrus)

This will include opportunities in providing manufacturing, engineering and technical services and goods to the nuclear industry as well as the advanced technologies that will be used in the next generation of commercial nuclear reactors. In particular, they want to pursue cooperation in developing the next generation of nuclear reactors, which will require advanced engineering capabilities and innovative fuel designs.

Centrus, the Bethesda, Maryland-based nuclear fuel and services supplier, offers turnkey engineering and advanced manufacturing solutions, and is also working on "next generation" centrifuge technologies. In March it signed a services contract with X-energy, LLC to support the design of a facility to produce X-energy's uranium oxycarbide tristructural isotropic (Triso) advanced nuclear fuel.

Doosan Heavy Industries & Construction is an engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contractor offering services ranging from the manufacture of castings and forgings, power generation systems and desalination facilities to the construction of power plants. The Changwon-based company manufactures and installs various plant components, including steam turbines, hydraulic turbines, condensers and heat exchangers. It fabricated the reactor pressure vessels and steam generators for the Vogtle 3 and 4 AP1000 reactors currently under construction in Georgia, USA and has also supported reactor construction projects in China, South Korea and the United Arab Emirates.

The MoU establishes a framework for the two companies to explore a range of commercial initiatives that would take advantage of their "unique" capabilities, expertise and customer relationships, they said.

Daniel Poneman, Centrus president and CEO, said: "With unique and complementary technical capabilities, we believe there could be mutually beneficial opportunities for our companies to work together worldwide and win new business."

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Centrus-and-Doosan-sign-MoU

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/19 9:48:52 (7 人讀取)

French EPR engineering simulator to be upgraded

Canada-based L3 MAPPS has been awarded a contract by France's Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) to upgrade its Flamanville 3 engineering simulator, based on the EPR nuclear power reactor design.

The SOFIA Simulator (Image: IRSN)

An engineering simulator is a computer system able to calculate and display in real time the physical parameters of a nuclear power plant. It simulates equipment failures and actions carried out by operators. All actions are initiated from a user-friendly multi-screen human-machine interface.

The Flamanville 3 (FA3) simulator is one of four pressurised water reactor (PWR) simulator configurations that can be operated on the Simulator for Observation of Functioning during Incident and Accident (SOFIA). SOFIA also hosts plant configurations for CP2 (900 MWe), DYP (1300 MWe) and N4 (1450 MWe). SOFIA performs the functioning of a PWR from cold shutdown states to full power state. Accidental transients can be performed up to the beginning of fuel cladding oxidation, corresponding to a cladding temperature around 2000°F.

The modularity of SOFIA allows IRSN to keep its simulator up-to-date with the current state of the French nuclear plants, and to improve the simulation scope to reach a better modelling level.

The original FA3 simulator, developed by L3 MAPPS, has been in service since September 2011. Modifications are now to be made to align SOFIA's FA3 plant models with the latest plant design information. The upgraded simulator will be carried out as a joint project between IRSN and L3 MAPPS.

The upgrade project includes modifications to the plant models in L3 MAPPS' Orchid Modelling Environment. The simulator's electrical and hydraulic systems will be updated by IRSN. L3 MAPPS will modify the safety and operational instrumentation and control systems. IRSN will also modify the existing human-machine interface in L3 MAPPS' Orchid Control System software with L3 MAPPS' support. The integration and testing phases will be shared by IRSN and L3 MAPPS. The upgraded simulator is expected to be in service in the third quarter of 2019.

"The simulator configuration upgrade will allow IRSN to improve its personnel training and safety analysis studies capabilities related to the Flamanville 3 nuclear power plant," said Robin Dorel, IRSN Project Manager for the Sofia Simulator.

Construction of the Flamanville EPR began in December 2007, with commercial operation originally expected in 2013. Hot functional tests - which involve checking the equipment under similar temperature and pressure conditions to those under which it will operate - are now expected to begin before the end this year. The loading of fuel into the unit's core is expected in late-2019.

On 29 June, Taishan 1 became the world's first EPR to achieve grid connection and power generation. It is expected to enter commercial operation later this year. Taishan 2 - which is in the equipment installation phase - is scheduled to begin operating next year. Olkiluoto 3, the first-of-a-kind EPR, has completed hot functional tests and is preparing to load fuel. Two further EPRs are planned for the Hinkley Point C plant in Somerset, England.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/French-EPR-engineering-simulator-to-be-upgraded

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/19 9:47:20 (7 人讀取)

IAEA highlights nuclear's role in combating climate change

Nuclear power can make a "vital contribution to meeting climate change targets while delivering the increasingly large quantities of electricity needed for global economic development," according to a new report by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Nuclear plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Image: Pixabay)

The report, Climate Change and Nuclear Power 2018, was published last week and has been updated from the last report released in 2016 "to include the latest scientific information and analyses on the link between energy production and climate change".

The Paris Climate Change Agreement, which aims to keep global temperature increases this century well below 2ºC, and to drive efforts to limit temperature increases to below 1.5ºC , was adopted in December 2015 at the 21st conference of the parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris. It entered into force in November 2016.

IAEA Deputy Director General Mikhail Chudakov said: "This scenario requires a significant scaling up of all clean, low-carbon technologies such as nuclear power, with electricity demand expected to rise sharply in the coming years as countries need more power for development. If nuclear power deployment doesn't expand in line with this scenario, the other technologies may not fill the gap - and we may not meet our climate targets."

The production and use of energy accounts for almost two-thirds of total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, contributing significantly to climate change. The IAEA notes that around 70% of the world's electricity is currently produced through the burning of fossil fuels. To meet climate goals by 2050, 80% of electricity will need to be from low-carbon sources, it says.

"As a large scale energy source, nuclear power has a significant potential to contribute to GHG emissions reduction," the new report says. "Nuclear power has avoided a significant amount of CO2 emissions in recent decades. In the absence of nuclear energy, and assuming fossil fuel technologies had produced the corresponding amount of electricity according to their historical shares in the electricity mix, CO2 emissions would have been considerably higher." The IAEA estimates that nuclear power avoided the emission of some 68 gigatonnes of CO2 between 1970 and 2015.

The IAEA said the new report considers how "the nuclear industry's efforts to address challenges to greater deployment of nuclear power - such as radioactive waste management, safety concerns and high investment costs - could significantly boost the potential of the low-carbon source to contribute to climate change mitigation". Such efforts, it says, include "progress in the development of waste disposal repositories, reactors with passive and inherent safety systems, reactors that generate less waste and reactors with alternative cost models".

The IAEA said it hopes the report will "make a useful contribution to the deliberations of policy makers participating in the activities of forums including the UNFCCC, which provides the international framework for addressing climate change."

In a separate publication released last week - titled Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the period up to 2050 - the IAEA warned that nuclear generating capacity could shrink as old reactors are retired and "the industry grapples with reduced competitiveness".

Nuclear generating capacity is projected to reach 511 GWe by 2030 and 748 GWe by 2050 in the IAEA's high growth projection. This represents a 30% increase over current levels by 2030 and a 90% increase of capacity by 2050. The low case projects a 2030 nuclear capacity of 352 GWe, rising slightly to 356 GWe in 2050.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/IAEA-highlights-nuclear-s-role-in-combating-climat

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/19 9:45:28 (7 人讀取)

Challenging the nuclear finance status quo

Financial challenges facing nuclear energy need to be tackled by disrupting the status quo to help drive down costs, delegates heard at the recent World Nuclear Association 2018 Symposium in London.

L-R: Petti, Zhao, Barker, Holland (Images: World Nuclear Association)

Excluding nuclear energy drives up the cost of electricity in future low-carbon scenario projections, Idaho National Laboratory's David Petti, executive director of the recently released MIT Energy Initiative study The future of nuclear energy in a carbon-constrained world, said. Simulations of optimal energy mixes carried out for the study found that nuclear would be important at all levels of decarbonisation, and emission levels of 10 g CO2 per kWh or less - essential for deep decarbonisation - would be extremely difficult and "incredibly" expensive to achieve without nuclear, he said.

Petti said the overnight costs of nuclear must be brought down to enable it to compete with other generation options, but if the cost of building nuclear plants can be reduced then the market for them will expand, bringing with it business opportunities. Civil works, site preparation, installation and indirect costs such as engineering oversight - rather than the costs of the nuclear technology itself - dominate the costs of building a nuclear plant. Measures such as standardisation on multi-unit sites, optimising seismic isolation, employing advanced concrete solutions - together with updating codes to enable their use - and modular construction techniques using factory-fabricated modules could help to reduce these costs, he said.

Diversification in China

China, which has the largest number of nuclear power units under construction and aims to become a reactor vendor, has so far mostly relied on domestic loans for its new build projects but this trend is changing, Dongchen Zhao, executive director of ICBC International Research Limited, said.

Approvals of new construction projects iwere suspended in 2013-2014 but these resumed in 2015, first with Hongyanhe 5 and 6, followed by the Fuqing Hulaong One project, China's first self-developed Generation III reactor. The 13th Five-Year Plan calls for coal capacity to be limited to 1100 GWe, with nuclear reaching 58 GWe.

Although investment in nuclear - and all energy - has decreased over recent years, nuclear's share of China's total energy investment has continued to increase. The financing structure for Chinese projects is heavily reliant on domestic loans, which make up nearly 70% of finance, with strict investment criteria and limited access for individual investors, Zhao said. In contrast, nuclear finance in more developed nuclear countries includes a large number of participating enterprises, particularly by individual investors and transnational financing.

Diversification is on the way, however, Zhao said. The Taishan 1 and 2 EPR projects have enjoyed foreign capital from the start, with CNY16.45 billion of the total CNY49.87 billion investment from joint venture partners and the remainder borrowed from the Central Bank of France. The involvement of the Guangdong Yudian Group, which in 2012 took a 19% share in the Taishan Nuclear Power Joint Venture is a step towards diversification in financing, he said.

Ongoing power sector reforms are making on-grid tariffs market- rather than government-driven, and levelised costs for Generation III nuclear, at CNY 0.42 per kWh, is the second cheapest generation option for China after thermal coal. This will prompt investment in nuclear power, while financial sector and state-owned enterprise reforms are allowing private and foreign capital to be directly involved in nuclear construction, Zhao said.

Market reforms

It is crucial for the USA to keep its existing nuclear fleet if it is to meet its carbon goals, Jason Barker, Exelon's director of wholesale market development, said.

Economic challenges facing its nuclear sector centre on 20 years of flat demand and the impact of shale gas, plus inconsistent carbon policy and a clash between state and federal policy. The area served by regional transmission organisation PJM - the largest power market in the USA - is underlain by major shale gas systems which have driven down the cost of natural gas production, crushing gas prices and spurring an increase in consumption. This "glut" of natural gas is pushing down power supply costs and pushing down the revenues available from electricity markets, he said. PJM's wholesale prices are now at their lowest in 40 years, and the revenues earned by nuclear power plants are now below the costs of running the units, he said.

Nuclear is one of cheapest means of achieving decarbonisation goals but it is not being compensated for this, Barker said, with prematurely retired nuclear capacity likely to be replaced with gas in the near term, further threatening climate goals. Four nuclear power plants in Ohio and Pennsylvania for which deactivation plans have already been announced - Davis-Besse, Perry, Beaver Valley 1 and 2 and Three Mile Island - together generated more electricity in 2017 than all the solar and wind generation capacity in the PJM. Their retirement would in effect "wipe out" 25 years of investment in wind and solar in the region, he said.

In the absence of federal US policy to ensure the continued operation of nuclear units, individual states are stepping in to recognise the carbon value but also the economic value of these units to the communities where they are located, he said. However, he warned of a federal-state jurisdictional clash. Wholesale electricity markets are regulated at the federal level, and state policies recognising the attributes of nuclear could be seen from a federal point of view as a subsidy to be mitigated on the wholesale capacity market, which could strip nuclear plants of the ability to earn revenue from the forward-looking capacity market auctions.

Barker also highlighted issues with the design of the US energy market, where prices fail to reflect all generation dispatched to meet load at a given time. Also, as gas generation increases the grid becomes more susceptible to common-mode fuel supply disruptions but the resilience benefits from nuclear's long-term fuel supply are not being compensated.

"Immediate reforms are needed for nuclear power in the United States," Barker said. "The discussion today is not how to build new nuclear in the United States, it's how to save the assets that we have."

Disruptive mindset

Jeff Holland, senior controller at Bruce Power, explored how the nuclear industry can challenge itself to "do things better" while maintaining safety and reliability. Challenging the financial status quo to do things differently can bring cost drivers down, helping to secure the nuclear industry's long-term future, he said.

Holland gave examples of a "disruptive mindset" outside the industry that successfully challenged the status quo. Barack Obama's 2008 US election campaign leveraged social media in a new way and was thus dubbed the 'Facebook election', he said. Netflix reformed itself from being a mail-order DVD service to a streaming platform and then to an entertainment production company, he added.

Catalysts for change in the nuclear industry are found in the political environment, where policies can change quickly, he said. These include market conditions, for example the availability of 'cheap' alternatives like shale gas in the USA, and emerging new technologies, which offer both a threat and an opportunity for nuclear. The nuclear industry needs to take advantage of new technology, he said, such as automated equipment monitoring, machine learning and robotics. It must also be ready to face threats such as cyber security and technological advances that may be advantageous for other energy options, such as improvements in storage capacity for electricity generated by wind and solar.


Bruce Power's finance team has responded to these challenges with its 2020 Finance Plan. Bruce's finance delivery model devotes more time to integrating with business and less on data mining, consolidation and reconciliation. The understanding gained from closer integration of the finance team with the business means opportunities to bring costs down can be more readily identified, Holland said. This is supported by the use of technological solutions to transform data into information.

"Knowing the business is really important for all support staff in a nuclear organisation," he said. "We're sending our accountants on plant fundamentals courses."

Integrating finance with business has already identified money-saving solutions for Bruce. For example, through their interactions with operations teams, analysts have identified ways to improve helium management.

"We've actually saved half a million dollars at each of our plants over the past 18 months," Holland said. The company has also introduced commercial awareness training for all leaders within the company.

"Let's work to challenge the status quo to bring our cost drivers down," he said. "Let's work together, as nuclear finance professionals, and professionals as a whole, to develop strategies that will bring cost drivers down. Together we can secure a long-term future."

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Challenging-the-nuclear-finance-status-quo

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/19 9:42:52 (7 人讀取)

Hualong One simulator ready for operator training

The first full-scope simulator for the Chinese-developed Hualong One reactor has been delivered to the Fuqing nuclear power plant, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced on 14 September.

The Hualong One full-scope simulator at the Fuqing plant (Image: CNNC)

Simulators are a vital piece of equipment for training plant operators, both at the start of their careers and for their continuing training.

CNNC said the new simulator passed the acceptance test and was officially delivered 115 days in advance of schedule. Experts concluded that all the indicators of the Hualong One full-scope simulator meet the relevant functional and performance requirements, it added, and the simulator is now ready to be used to train reactor operators.

Developed by CNNC subsidiary Wuhan Nuclear Power Operation Technology Company Limited, the simulator uses a variety of international advanced technologies to simulate the operation of a nuclear power plant, both under normal and emergency conditions. It uses the latest platform and software to which CNNC Wuhan has complete independent intellectual property rights.

The simulator exactly replicates the control room of Fuqing unit 5 - the first of two demonstration Hualong One units at the site in China's Fujian province.

Installation of the control room at Fuqing 5 was completed last month. The final display panel of the control room was installed on 4 August, China Nuclear Industry 23 Construction Company announced on 7 August. The company said this was six days ahead of schedule and marked the reactor's transition from the installation phase to the system commissioning phase.

In November 2014, CNNC announced that the fifth and sixth units at Fuqing will use the domestically-developed Hualong One pressurised water reactor design, marking its first deployment. It had previously expected to use the ACP1000 design for those units, but plans were revised in line with a re-organisation of the Chinese nuclear industry. China's State Council gave final approval for construction of Fuqing units 5 and 6 in April 2015.

The pouring of first concrete for Fuqing 5 began in May that year, marking the official start of construction of the unit. Construction of unit 6 began in December the same year. The dome of unit 5 was installed on the containment building in May last year and the reactor pressure vessel was installed in January this year.

Fuqing 5 and 6 are scheduled to be completed in 2019 and 2020, respectively.

Construction of two Hualong One (HPR1000) units is also under way at China General Nuclear's Fangchenggang plant in the Guangxi Autonomous Region. Those units are also expected to start up in 2019 and 2020. Two HPR1000 units are under construction at Pakistan's Karachi nuclear power plant. Construction began on Karachi unit 2 in 2015 and unit 3 in 2016; the units are planned to enter commercial operation in 2021 and 2022. The HPR1000 has also been proposed for construction at Bradwell in the UK, where it is undergoing Generic Design Assessment.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Hualong-One-simulator-ready-for-operator-training

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/17 9:35:44 (9 人讀取)

UK and USA enhance nuclear research cooperation

The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) and the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have agreed to cooperate on nuclear energy research. The announcement came as the UK and USA signed a nuclear R&D action plan.

Under the memorandum of understanding (MoU) - which aims to leverage both organisation's expertise and capabilities - NNL and ORNL will collaborate on nuclear-related projects through idea sharing, staff exchanges and joint workshops. The collaboration will include developing modelling and simulation tools for advanced nuclear reactors, exploring accident-tolerant fuel concepts, developing management and assessment techniques for used fuel, and pursuing the production of isotopes for space, medical and industrial applications. The agreement will run for three years.

"The goal in each area is to provide different perspectives on how the two organisations tackle difficult research questions that meet the needs of the nuclear community," ORNL said.

NNL is known for its Nuclear Fuels Centre of Excellence and in-house high-performance computing capabilities. In addition, the laboratory has established analysis tools including the Orion fuel cycle modelling code and the Enigma fuel performance code. ORNL's nuclear capabilities span similar offerings that include the internationally recognised Scale code system, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications analysis tools from the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors and various R&D facilities for nuclear applications.

"It is an exciting opportunity to expand what we do as a national laboratory, and potentially do it better, through such a unique partnership with a leading nuclear institution like NNL," said Alan Icenhour, associate laboratory director for the Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate at ORNL. "This agreement brings together two globally recognised leaders to continue answering our respective nations' calls for excellence in nuclear science and technology."

Paul Howarth, CEO of NNL, said: "I am delighted to reach agreement on this pioneering new MoU with ORNL, which will allow us to build on our already well-established relationship. Together we will draw on the world-leading expertise from our respective organisations and use our complementary skills and knowledge to further nuclear energy-related research and development. This will include the development of exciting and innovative technologies of the future."

Nuclear round table

The agreement between NNL and ORNL was announced during a meeting of UK and US decision and policy makers held earlier this week. The UK-US Nuclear Round Table was held at the British Embassy in Washington, DC, and was jointly hosted by NNL and the UK's Department for International Trade, and the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS).

The event provided attendees with a senior briefing on UK and US policy developments affecting the sector as well as opportunities to discuss challenges and barriers between the two countries.

Rob Whittleston, VP Insight at NNL, said: "At a time of significant sector developments for our respective nations, this event brings together senior industry representatives and policy makers from both sides of the Atlantic."

He added, "In addition to UK and US policy updates, attendees heard tangible examples of industry experience of delivering value via successful UK-US collaboration in nuclear, and about the need to drive disruptive innovation into the sector. This was followed by a facilitated round table session which was a chance for industry representatives and policy makers to discuss opportunities and challenges, and consider how we can work more effectively together aligned to the policy/strategy ambitions of both nations, including through a commercial lens."

UK-USA action plan

The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Nuclear Energy announced on 13 September that an action plan between the USA and UK had been finalised. The purpose of the plan - signed in Washington, DC, by the DOE and BEIS - is "to ensure nuclear energy's contribution to both countries' strategic energy resources, low carbon emissions targets, non-proliferation goals and nuclear energy safety objectives," it said.

"The action plan seeks to facilitate cooperation in R&D for advanced civilian nuclear energy technologies between the two countries," DOE said. "Both recognise a variety of approaches and technical pathways are needed to achieve optimal development of civil nuclear technologies over the long-term."

The plan calls for working groups to look at the following areas: radioisotopes for use in space technologies; nuclear reactor technologies; advanced fuels; fuel cycle technologies; advanced modelling and simulation; and, enabling technologies.

"Agreement of the US and UK action plan allows us to move forward and focus on a number of key advances in nuclear energy, including reactors and fuels," said Ed McGinnis, principal deputy assistant secretary of the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy. "Both countries recognise the value of bilateral cooperation in nuclear energy innovation."

DOE noted the new action plan will complement, not replace, existing mechanisms of cooperation and build on the current collaboration between the USA and UK in the university, laboratory and industry sectors.

In June, BEIS said the UK had signed a new Nuclear Cooperation Agreement with the USA, the first in a series of new international agreements "ensuring uninterrupted cooperation and trade" following the UK's exit from the European Union in March next year.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/UK-and-USA-enhance-nuclear-research-cooperation

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/17 9:33:05 (9 人讀取)

UK collaboration for safety and security research

Consultants Frazer-Nash, in collaboration with Rolls-Royce, the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), EDF Energy, Jacobsen Analytics, Lancaster University, University of Bristol and University of York are set to deliver a nuclear safety and security research contract.

Construction of the nuclear island at Hinkley Point C, the first new nuclear power station built in the UK in almost 20 years (Image: EDF Energy)

Frazer-Nash said yesterday that, working on behalf of the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), the GBP3.6 million (USD4.7 million), two-year project, aims to deliver a “step change in the UK’s capability as the country moves toward an era of new nuclear build and new technologies”.

Nial Greeves, Frazer-Nash senior business executive for energy said the newly announced project collaboration “brings together a unique mix of expertise” from industrial and academic organisations.

“All of our partners are world-class and leaders in their respective fields. This ground-breaking research and development project will demonstrate to the global nuclear industry that the UK is at the forefront of nuclear safety and security research,” he said.

Eddie Marrett, head of security consultancy at Rolls-Royce, said nuclear safety and security are “converging” and the aim in this project is to support the civil nuclear industry “to integrate these two critical elements to reduce the costs of nuclear power generation”.

Ivan Baldwin, VP customer executive for Government and International Business at NNL, said the National Innovation Programme is “vitally important” to the Nuclear Sector Deal, “positioning the UK to capitalise on global markets as a leader in nuclear technology”.

Through the policy Nuclear innovation, 2016 to 2021: at Spending Review 2015, the government committed to a GBP460 million programme for nuclear research and innovation. A detailed scope definition is ongoing, and following regulator input the programme will be delivered through projects spread over the two years to 2020.

The programme will include a range of activities, including: improving control and instrumentation design for testability; developing a roadmap for regulatory approval of new/novel reactor designs; and the application of model-based systems engineering in the UK nuclear sector. These activities will be monitored against aims and key performance indicators.

Business and Industry Minister Richard Harrington said in the statement from Frazer-Nash that nuclear power “plays a crucial role in maintaining a diverse, clean, secure electricity supply, and our modern Industrial Strategy aims to make Britain the world’s most innovative economy”.  He added: “We will continue to support UK businesses, like Frazer-Nash, so they can take full advantage of this opportunity and drive forward the UK’s nuclear energy capability as set out in the landmark nuclear Sector Deal.”

BEIS published the nuclear Sector Deal in June. The document, which includes GBP200 million in funding for the sector, was developed by the Nuclear Industry Council (NIC) - whose membership is drawn from across energy, manufacturing, engineering, science and research - in partnership with the government. The NIC unveiled its proposals for a nuclear Sector Deal in December last year, following the government's publication of its Industrial Strategy white paper, which highlights the role of nuclear energy in the UK.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/UK-companies-to-deliver-safety-and-security-resear

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/17 9:31:22 (10 人讀取)

Nuclear industry faces wake-up call, says IAEA's Chudakov

The future of nuclear energy depends on the industry’s readiness to address the seven factors influencing its prospects, the deputy director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) told delegates at the World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018 held in London last week.

Chudakov speaking last week (Image: World Nuclear Association)

Mikhail Chudakov, who is also head of the Vienna-based organisation’s nuclear energy department, said the industry needs to change public acceptance of nuclear power to public demand for this safe, reliable, sustainable and low-carbon source of electricity.

In his presentation titled Nuclear Energy: Where are we headed? Chudakov summarised the need for action.

“We know the challenges: World energy consumption is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of about 1%, but electricity consumption will grow at a higher rate of about 2.5% per year up to 2030 and around 2% thereafter,” he said. “With virtually no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, nuclear power can have an important role to play in achieving [the United Nation's] Sustainable Development Goals, meeting the targets set out in the Paris Agreement.”

But limiting temperature increases to the 2 Degree Scenario is not easy, he said, because today 70% of the world’s electricity comes from burning fossil fuels. But by 2050, around 80% of electricity will need to be low carbon, he added. This scenario already includes “significant scaling” of all clean, low-carbon technologies.

“If nuclear power deployment doesn’t grow in line with this scenario, the other technologies will not make up the gap. And we will not meet our climate targets that are critical to life on this planet,” he said.


The IAEA’s latest projections for global installed nuclear power capacity in the ‘high case’ indicate an increase from 2017 levels by 30% in 2030 and by 90% in 2050, he noted. However, in the low projection, world nuclear electrical generating capacity is projected to gradually decline until 2040 and then rebound to the 2030 level by 2050. The share of nuclear electrical generating capacity in the world total will be about 3% in the low case and about 6% in the high case by the middle of the century.

“This year’s projection has not been announced yet, but it is even worse: 2.8% and 5.6%, respectively,” Chudakov said.

Referring to the nuclear industry’s Harmony goal to add 1000 GWe of new installed capacity by 2050, with nuclear accounting for 25% of global electricity consumption, he said: “Last year’s high case was 700 GWe. Where is the 1000 GWe plus of new capacity? We can’t see it. Where is our 25% of electricity production by 2050? We are already losing the battle and we will be responsible for this.” He added: “This should be a big wake up call for all of us.”

In notes that accompanied his presentation, Chudakov said the decline compared to previous projections is mainly owing to “the early retirement or lack of interest in extending the operating life of nuclear power plants in some countries, due to the reduced competitiveness of nuclear power in the short run and nuclear policies in several countries following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi in 2011”. His notes added: “We are still looking into a heavy new build schedule to replace the large figure of capacity that will go away due to retiring reactors.”

Seven factors

Chudakov outlined the seven influences he sees on the future of nuclear power: safety; funding and financing; electricity markets and nuclear policies; innovation (advanced reactors and fuel cycles); waste management; capacity building; and public acceptance.

He said he wanted to highlight the way these factors will determine whether future developments will be closer to the IAEA’s low or high projections.

“Of course, we can stop talking about safety, but we can’t prevent people asking us about safety and they have the right to. The safety performance of nuclear installations is crucial to the future of nuclear power, as a strong safety record is essential for its public acceptance,” he said.

Ways to support the safety factor include, he said: the IAEA’s review missions which help improve harmonisation across its 170 Member States; the sharing of operational experience which provides more open access to information; emergency preparedness policies which provide for better exchange of technical information; severe accident management drills that make more use of IAEA and other international experience; and management and safety culture which works best through multilateral cooperation.

“The more we share our operating experience, the better our resilience to events will become. Fukushima has demonstrated to us that we need to be joined-up when responding to significant events in our industry, we can do this by improving our exchange of technical information around the plants, but we need to continue identifying areas where we all have to work harder,” he said.

There are funding needs that arise during the various phases of embarking on or expanding a country’s nuclear power programme, he said, which include establishing and maintaining a national regulatory body; and establishing funding mechanisms to meet the ‘back-end liabilities’ of decommissioning and waste management.

The decline of gas prices, the rapid deployment of large amounts of renewable energy, the shifting of electricity demand from OECD to non-OECD countries, particularly in Asia, and the absence of a meaningful CO2 price signal, are significantly influencing nuclear growth, he said.

“Yes, financing new nuclear build is challenging, but new ways of thinking have produced new ways of finding money. We see this in Turkey, in Finland, in the UAE, in the UK. But the underlying question is: How can governments create more enabling conditions so that nuclear can be more affordable?

The answer to this question is closely linked to electricity markets and nuclear policies, he said. Support needs to be given to newcomers to nuclear power and harmonised support to new operators, he said. The management of a nuclear power plant involves, after all, cooperative work throughout the more than 60 years of its operation, he added.

On innovation, he said the industry had demonstrated progress in the development and implementation of high-level waste repositories that will have a “profound impact” on the political and public acceptance of nuclear power. Acquiring and retaining skilled personnel to ensure a competent workforce for all phases of a nuclear facility’s life cycle are among the biggest challenges for the nuclear community, he added.

“When the Members States see nuclear as a key contributor to their achievement of sustainable development and climate mitigation targets, the enabling conditions and policies will also change,” he said. There are two key things the industry must do, he added. The first of these is maintaining the current fleet - the “workhorse of low-carbon energy production” - for as long as safely possible.

“This will take us to the 2050s,” he said. “And then, the innovative systems that are now under development kick in. Fast reactors, high temperature gas-cooled reactors, small and medium sized or modular reactors, and especially coupling them with other industrial purposes (cogeneration) will ensure that we are indeed talking about a sustainable energy system.”

Radioactive waste management practice must provide public reassurance that the industry has managed programmes for the whole lifecycle, he said. There is great potential for cooperation, he added, in the integrated review service for radioactive waste and used fuel management, decommissioning and remediation programmes, referred to as Artemis. Artemis missions provide independent expert opinion and advice, drawn from an international team of specialists convened by the IAEA. Reviews are based on the IAEA safety standards and technical guidance, as well as international good practices.

In order to build capacity, there is a need, he said, for the development of human resources in the industry for both existing operators and the new generation.

“We need to consider new ways of learning and development for our workforce, alongside effective education, training and knowledge management to ensure we equip our people for the future,” he said.

Demand for nuclear

Public acceptance remains a key factor for the future of nuclear power, he said, and largely depends on public perception of the benefits and risks associated with this form of power generation, but also of the benefits and risks of non-nuclear alternatives.

All stakeholders ought to reinforce the social and economic benefits of nuclear power.

“We need to explain and to start education at all levels, from kindergarten, school and university, to parliament and ministers. We should not be ashamed to talk about nuclear energy; we are always defending ourselves, but it’s time to start attacking - to actively explain and promote nuclear power,” he said.

“Public opinion about the future of nuclear power is perhaps the most important variable that will determine whether nuclear power will help us meet our development and climate goals, or whether we will fail. We will greatly improve our chances for success if our efforts can shift the paradigm from gaining public acceptance of nuclear power to generating well-informed public demand for nuclear power. We must reinforce the benefits of nuclear power. This is a big, but a vitally important task and it will require enhanced international cooperation.

“Each of you has a role to play. We need you to be the drivers.”

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Nuclear-industry-faces-wake-up-call,-says-IAEAs-Ch

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/17 9:26:43 (9 人讀取)

US plant operators prepare for Hurricane Florence

UPDATED: Duke Energy has shut down both units at the Brunswick nuclear power plant as the North Carolina site faces hurricane-force winds, major storm surges and heavy rain. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is staffing its incident response centre in Atlanta around the clock to monitor Hurricane Florence, which has now made landfall, and its effects on nuclear power plants and other NRC-licensed facilities.

FEMA Associate Administrator Jeff Byard (on the right) providing an overview of federal efforts in support of Hurricane Florence to South Carolina Senator Tim Scott at the National Response Coordination Center yesterday (Image: Raymond Piper/FEMA)

Duke Energy yesterday (13 September) notified the NRC of the shut-down at the two-unit Brunswick plant, south of Wilmington, where NRC inspectors have this week reviewed storm preparations, including protection against the amount of rain and flooding that might be expected. Procedures require operators to shut down plants well before hurricane-force winds arrive on site. NRC inspectors are on site at the Brunswick plant and will remain there through the storm, the regulator said.

Officials at the Global Nuclear Fuels plant near Wilmington have also notified the NRC that they have shut down operations and secured equipment in advance of the storm. Other nuclear plants in the projected storm path have prepared for high winds and heavy rainfall. Inspectors also will remain at those sites as conditions require, the NRC said.

The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Hurricane Center at 6:00 am EDT on 14 September said the eyewall of the hurricane had already made landfall and at 7:00 am said the centre of the eye of the hurricane was about to make landfall near Wrightsville Beach in North Carolina.

Additional NRC inspectors are being sent to plants in the affected areas, where NRC resident inspectors are reviewing operator preparations. Staff at that plant, plus Dominion Generation's two-unit Surry in south eastern Virginia; Duke Energy's Shearon Harris in North Carolina; and Robinson in South Carolina; and some other plants are working through their severe weather procedures, the NRC said. Its inspectors are verifying that all preparations have been completed, and the plants' emergency diesel generators are available with ample fuel in case the storm affects off-site power.

The NRC is also verifying storm preparations at Global Nuclear Fuels-America facility near Wilmington and North Carolina State University's research reactor and other licensees in the region.

The US National Hurricane Center at 5:00 am EDT yesterday forecast the centre of the hurricane to approach the coasts of North and South Carolina, then move near or over the coast of southern North Carolina and eastern South Carolina. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which coordinates the federal government's role in preparing for, preventing, mitigating the effects of, responding to, and recovering from all domestic disasters, whether natural or man-made, said the hurricane is expected to stall out after making landfall, and flood inland areas with rain in central and western parts of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia.

Nuclear plant operators prepare in the days before a storm by ensuring that all loose debris and equipment is removed or secured, and conducting walk-down inspections of important systems and equipment. Emergency equipment, such as generators and pumps, are checked to ensure full operability. US regulations require nuclear power plants to shut down if a storm is forecast to strike the plant with sustained winds of greater than 73 miles per hour, because of the potential loss of off-site power.

The USA's nuclear power plants have weathered hurricanes before. In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew's landfall brought down power lines and flooded transformers, leaving more than two million customers without power across several states. The Robinson plant responded to a temporary loss of off-site power by shutting down safely. The Harris plant also experienced a loss of off-site power, but was already shut down for a scheduled refuelling outage. Emergency diesel generators at both plants operated as designed, and off-site power was restored within 24 hours.

Duke Energy meteorologists are estimating power outages in the Carolinas from Hurricane Florence could be between one and three million customers, the company said yesterday, with power restoration work potentially taking weeks.

FIRST PUBLISHED: 13 September 3:10pm GMT

UPDATED: 14 September 12:46pm GMT

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/US-plant-operators-prepare-for-Hurricane-Florence

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/14 9:39:51 (10 人讀取)

Newcomer countries need 'collaborative approach'

Countries intending to begin nuclear power programmes require collaborative negotiations with suppliers to ensure the success of their projects, two lawyers told delegates at the recent World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018.

Abdel-Aziz (left) and Borovas (right) last week with session moderator Tom Greatrex of the UK's Nuclear Industry Association (Image: World Nuclear Association)

"It is unlikely that there are obstacles in the domestic programmes of Russia, China, South Korea or India that need to be resolved or removed in order to increase the pace of growth [in nuclear power]," said Ahab Abdel-Aziz, the global director of Nuclear Power Generation at Gowling WLG.

"These are programmes that are working well: There's not a whole lot that we can teach those markets to increase the pace of growth. And similarly, it's unlikely that western economies will be the engine of that growth - partly because of saturation of their infrastructure growth."

However, he said one substantial opportunity comes from newcomer countries, which represent a "significant element or potential element" of that growth. Newcomer countries have usually done "a lot of conventional power development" by the time they have decided they are ready for a nuclear power project, he suggested.

George Borovas, a partner and the head of nuclear at Shearman & Sterling, noted there are different types of newcomer countries. There are those with limited or no nuclear experience, and there are those that may have experience in large infrastructure or conventional power projects, but not nuclear projects. He suggested that it can be easier for countries to adopt other models or best practices as compared to countries with an existing nuclear industry.

"In a nuclear power project, the context is really quite different [to a conventional project]," Abdel-Aziz said. There are political, regulatory, technological, construction, market and financial influences that can affect the success of a project. "The stakes are extremely high for all those involved."

He added that it is not the technology that has created delays and cost increases for nuclear new build projects. "The difference is in what people do, how people behave in relation to a nuclear power project. In particular, to my mind, it's how the class of project management personality and senior executives on the owner's side, on the vendor's side and in the supply chain behave in a particular circumstance which is when you have a problem."

The vendor, he said, has to be focused on the successful completion of a project. "The only rational approach is to establish a common interest, reasonably allocate risk, share information in real-time, and collaborate fully on solving problems."

Borovas said that in negotiations with newcomer countries clarity as to party risk allocation and risk-sharing is key. Negotiations should also focus on the success of the project as "we all succeed or fail together". He suggested that collaborative negotiations result in a collaborative culture during project implementation. Owner and vendor leadership is key, with the assistance of experienced advisers in a supporting role.

"It is very easy for commercial negotiators, technical negotiators and lawyers to sit across a table from each other and to be caught up in what is effectively a game of negotiations, where you are going to make some gain, you have some sort of a win," said Abdel-Aziz. "It is very easy to do that and lose sight of the overall objectives.

"You've got to be able to step back and recognise when you are dealing with the kind of issue that if you get it wrong, one side or the other can kill the project. When you recognise that, you want to adopt a different approach to coming to a solution so that you are prioritising the interest of the project. That not only is good practice to get to an agreement that's focused on the project success, but it sets the tone for how the two sides behave."

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Newcomer-countries-need-collaborative-approach

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/14 9:36:42 (10 人讀取)

Investment needed to maintain nuclear's growth, says IAEA

New power reactors must be brought online over the coming decades to maintain nuclear's "key role" in combating climate change, according to newly published International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) projections.

The four units at the UAE's Barakah plant will be brought online by the end of 2020 (Image: ENEC)

Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the period up to 2050 is the 38th edition of the IAEA's annual publication, based on actual statistical data from the agency's Power Reactor Information System and the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

The country-by-country projections it contains are based on national projections supplied by countries to the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and projections made by other international organisations, taking into account possible licence renewals, planned shutdowns and foreseeable construction projects. These are used to produce two scenarios: a low case, described as "conservative but plausible", which assumes that current market, technology and resource trends continue with few policy changes to affect nuclear power; and a high case, which assumes that current rates of economic and electricity demand growth continue.

The IAEA noted that at the end of 2017 there were 448 operational nuclear power reactors around the world, with a combined generating capacity of 392 GWe. These reactors produced a total of 2503 TWh of electricity last year, accounting for about 10% of total electricity production.

"Over the short term, the low price of natural gas and the impact of subsidised intermittent renewable energy sources on electricity prices are expected to continue to affect nuclear growth prospects in some regions of the world," the report says. "In the near term, ongoing financial uncertainty and declining electricity consumption in some regions will continue to present challenges for capital-intensive projects such as nuclear power."

Nuclear generating capacity is projected to reach 511 GWe by 2030 and 748 GWe by 2050 in the IAEA's high growth projection. This represents a 30% increase over current levels by 2030 and a 90% increase of capacity by 2050. The low case projects a 2030 nuclear capacity of 352 GWe, rising slightly to 356 GWe in 2050.

"There are increasing uncertainties in these projections owing to the considerable number of reactors scheduled to be retired in some regions around 2030 and beyond," the IAEA said. "Significant new capacity would be necessary to offset any retirements resulting from factors such as ageing fleets and economic difficulties."

In its low case, the IAEA projects that some 139 GWe of nuclear generating capacity will be retired by 2030, while 99 GWe of new capacity will be added. Between 2030 and 2050, a further 186 GWe will be retired and 190 GWe added. In the high case, which assumes several older reactors will be given licence extensions, only 55 GWe of capacity will be retired by 2030, with a further 207 GWe retired by 2050. In this case, 175 GWe of new nuclear capacity is added by 2030 and about 443 GWe added by 2050.

Total nuclear electricity production will continue to increase between now and 2050, according to the IAEA. In the high case, nuclear electricity production will increase to 3969 TWh in 2030 and 6028 TWh in 2050. In the low case, nuclear electricity production will increase to 2732 TWH in 2030 and 2869 TWh in 2050. The share of nuclear electricity in total electricity production will decrease in the low case from about 10.3% in 2017 to 7.9% in 2030 and 5.6% in 2050. In the high case, its share will increase to 11.5% in 2030 and to 11.7% in 2050.

The IAEA said interest in nuclear power "remains strong in the developing world", particularly in Asia. It suggests that commitments agreed to at the 21st session of the UN Climate Change Conference (COP21) "could also produce a positive impact on nuclear energy development in the future".

In a statement to the IAEA board of governors on 10 September, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said: "The Agency's latest annual projections show that nuclear power will continue to play a key role in the world's low-carbon energy mix. However, the declining trend in our low projection for installed capacity up to 2050 suggests that, without significant progress on using the full potential of nuclear power, it will be difficult for the world to secure sufficient energy to achieve sustainable development and to mitigate climate change."

The nuclear industry has set the Harmony goal for nuclear energy to provide 25% of global electricity by 2050. This will require trebling nuclear generation from its present level. Some 1000 GWe of new nuclear generating capacity will need to be constructed by then to achieve that goal. World Nuclear Association has identified three areas for action to achieve this: establishing a level playing field in electricity markets, building harmonised regulatory processes, and an effective safety paradigm.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Nuclear-capacity-to-more-than-double-by-2050,-says

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/14 9:34:49 (10 人讀取)

Climate targets need market reform, says NEA's Magwood

If countries are serious about combatting climate change, then they will reform their electricity markets, William Magwood, director general of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), told delegates at the World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018 held in London last week.

Magwood (second left) speaking in the Symposium's high level panel (Image: World Nuclear Association)

Magwood highlighted one of the three objectives of the Harmony initiative - a level playing field for all clean-energy sources of electricity. The others are harmonised regulatory processes, and an effective safety paradigm.

“This is something we’ve been looking at the NEA for the last couple years and it’s very clear to me that the markets don’t work very well,” Magwood said.

“The electricity markets were designed in the middle of the last century for a system that doesn’t actually exist anymore. We see repeated in many parts of the world electricity prices that are either near-zero or are actually negative in certain parts of the day, and some countries with relatively old hydroelectric facilities are losing money.

Referring to the Paris Climate Change Agreement, which entered into force in November 2016, he said:  “In Paris, the world claimed to be concerned about climate change, but hydro facilities are losing money. No serious person can look at that situation and think it makes any sense. That is probably one of the biggest challenges that we have: How do we adjust the energy markets to do what we need to be done around the world?”

He added: “And as we adjust those markets we will find that how we compare energy technologies is really completely inadequate.”

The NEA has highlighted the fact that the market price of electricity from renewable energy sources does not include transmission and system costs.

“You really need to compare all the costs, the full cost of all the energy technologies, on an equal basis and we absolutely don’t do that and we should,” he said.

“The second thing is that even if energy markets worked, nuclear costs too much,” he added.

“Whenever you bring in renewables, whether subsidised or not, whenever you bring in natural gas, it shows that, over a long period of time, nuclear loses because the costs are too high.”

Mingguang Zheng, president of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute and senior vice president of State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation, had told delegates earlier in the conference that China is building plants now at about USD3000 per kW.

Magwood said: “That’s pretty competitive and it’s important to point out that plants don’t have to cost USD8000, USD9000, USD10,000 per kW if you know what you’re doing, if you have the infrastructure, if you have people who know how to build the plants, if you have a robust supply chain. I’m not sure you could get quite to USD3000 per kW, but you can get reasonably competitive.”

Construction of units 3 and 4 of the Vogtle nuclear power plant in the USA are a good example of “practice makes perfect”, he said. “Vogtle-3 is very expensive and is taking a long time, but Vogtle-4  is progressing so well that it’s actually catching up with Vogtle 3. There was supposed to be a year’s gap between them.”

As long as the design of electricity markets fails to acknowledge the benefits of nuclear power as a low-carbon source of power, however, “nuclear is going to cost too much and we have to bring the costs down”.

“We have to start looking at the technology a bit differently. The answer might be SMRs, the answer might be Gen-IV technologies,” he said. “But if we are aiming to avoid a certain technology in Country A, and another in Country B and a third in Country C, then we’re doomed. We have to build technologies for the whole market. If we don’t do that, we’ll never be cost-effective and we’ll never see the type of nuclear construction we need to meet the low-carbon and energy security goals.”

Magwood has led the NEA since September 2014. He was appointed a Commissioner at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2010 after previous roles including director of nuclear energy at the Department of Energy. He is recognised as a strong advocate of international technology cooperation, having served as chairman of both the Generation-IV International Forum and the OECD's steering committee on Nuclear Energy.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Nuclear-costs-must-fall-to-be-competitive,-says-NE

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/14 9:27:18 (10 人讀取)

India recommissions Apsara research reactor

An upgraded version of India's oldest research reactor, Apsara, has been recommissioned, nine years after it was shut down, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has announced.

The upgraded Apsara reactor (Image: BARC)

Construction of the French-supplied swimming pool type reactor began at BARC's Trombay campus in Mumbai in May 1955. The 1 MWt reactor - which used highly-enriched uranium (HEU) as fuel - achieved first criticality in August the following year. For over 50 years the reactor was used for the production of isotopes, basic research, shielding experiments, neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography and the testing of neutron detectors. The Apsara reactor was permanently shut down in 2009.

However, following a major upgrade, a new version of Apsara has now been commissioned. Fuelled with plate-type dispersion fuel plates made of low-enriched uranium (LEU), this achieved criticality at 6.41pm on 10 September, BARC said. It has a maximum output of 2 MWt.

"By virtue of higher neutron flux, this reactor will increase indigenous production of radioisotopes for medical application by about 50% and would also be extensively used for research in nuclear physics, material science and radiation shielding," it said.

"This development has re-emphasised the capability of Indian scientists and engineers to build complex facilities for health care, science education and research," it added.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/India-recommissions-Apsara-research-reactor

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/14 9:25:19 (10 人讀取)

California to be carbon neutral by 2045

California's governor has signed a bill setting a 100% clean energy goal for the state and issued an executive order setting a target to achieve carbon neutrality, both by 2045.

Governor Brown signs the bill (Image: Office of Governor Brown)

Senate Bill 100, signed yesterday by Governor Edmund Brown, increases the amount of electricity to be supplied by renewables to 60% by 2030 - up from the current target of 50% by 2030 - with all of its retail electricity supply to come from renewable energy and zero-carbon resources by 2045.

The bill also requires the state's Public Utilities Commission and its Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission to take steps to ensure that a transition to a zero-carbon electric system for California does not cause or contribute to greenhouse gas emission increases elsewhere in the western grid.

The executive order reaches beyond the electricity sector, which represents 16% of California's GHG emissions, directing the state to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045 and net negative GHG emissions after that. This will require large investments across all sectors - energy, transportation, industrial, commercial and residential buildings, agriculture, and various forms of sequestration including natural and working lands, Brown said.

"This bill and the executive order put California on a path to meet the goals of Paris and beyond. It will not be easy. It will not be immediate. But it must be done," Brown said.

"California is committed to doing whatever is necessary to meet the existential threat of climate change. This bill, and others I will sign this week, help us go in that direction. But have no illusions, California and the rest of the world have miles to go before we achieve zero-carbon emissions."

Two nuclear units at Pacific Gas & Electric's Diablo Canyon plant currently generate 8.7% of California's electricity which, according to the Nuclear Energy Institute, is 16% of the state's emission-free electricity. PG&E in June 2016 announced that the Diablo Canyon units would close in 2024 and 2025.

About 26.9% of the state's generation currently comes from hydro, with 26.9% from renewables and 43.3% from natural gas.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/California-to-be-carbon-neutral-by-2045

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/12 10:06:26 (14 人讀取)

Help the public understand radiation, advises cancer expert

A senior academic specialising in cancer research has called for a communication strategy to end the public’s exaggerated perception that nuclear radiation is harmful to human health. Gerry Thomas, professor of molecular pathology at Imperial College London, spoke at the World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018 held in London last week.

Geraldine Thomas speaking at the symposium (Image: World Nuclear Association)

Thomas said the real “problem” with radiation was that the public debate fails to separate the peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy.

“If you look back at the historical narrative of nuclear power and nuclear weapons, you’ll find that the two are intertwined. Unfortunately, in the public mind, those cannot be separated, but we do have a general acceptance of medical radiation exposure,” she said.

“Let it not be forgotten that some of the things that we use in medicine come out of nuclear power plants. People think that all that comes out is electricity, but actually some of the better agents being used to image tumours come out of nuclear power plants.

“We also hear people saying, ‘Let’s sit in a nice hot spa with lots of nice radon.’ But don’t they know that radon causes lung cancer? Why do we believe natural radiation is fine and beneficial, but anything that we make is not?”

There is a “very simple relationship”, she said, between dose and response to all toxins, including radiation.

“I don’t separate radiation from chemical toxins,” she said. “The individual dose from radiation in the environment depends on many factors: your body’s composition; what you eat and drink; where you work; all sorts of things, so when we try and explain where dose comes from the public just switch off. And there is a big perception that individual dose from nuclear accidents is much higher than it actually is.”


There is a need to take jargon and politics out of the debate on radiation, she said.

“We have a huge problem with communication about radiation because we use too much jargon and that’s scientists’ fault as well as everybody else’s. It’s a political football; there is far more politics about nuclear power than there is about any other power generation. There is a hell of a lot of misinformation on the Internet and very little understandable science. There’s a constant emphasis for the industry on safety. That just makes everybody feel that what you were doing before was unsafe. So, please, stop talking about safety,” she told delegates.

There is a “knowledge and awareness” of the hazards, but the public shows “heightened awareness” of the hazard of man-made radiation relative to radiation from natural sources.

“We need to adjust the unconscious biases around ‘man-made’ and ‘natural’ radiation. The pharmaceutical industry had to face this; there was always the assumption that if man had made the drug it was much worse than the natural compound, but actually most of the really nasty toxins are natural. I’m much more scared of being bitten by a snake than being exposed to radiation.

“So, we need to start talking about this and making it relevant to people. The association of hazard with risk is down to belief rather than scientific evidence. People believe radiation is dangerous even at low levels because that’s what they keep hearing.”


The myth behind public perception of radiation has been made worse by erroneous data about deaths following nuclear power plant accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima, she said.

Thomas referred to the book Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, which was published by the New York Academy of Sciences in 2010. The book cited a 2006 study by Elizabeth Cardis from the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon, France. This predicted that by 2065, Chernobyl will have caused 16,000 cases of thyroid cancer and 25,000 cases of other cancers, compared with “several hundred million cancer cases from other causes”.

The 16,000 figure is “probably correct”, Thomas said, “but actually we’re starting to say it’s about 25% of instances of those cases that may be due to the radiation exposure”.

“And as for 25,000 cases of other cancers, we haven’t seen any, only thyroid cancer. So where does that figure come from? But the interesting thing about this quote is at the bottom. They’ve used the numeric form for 16,000 and 25,000 but they’ve written ‘several hundred million cancer cases’ in words, so your mind sees the numbers and doesn’t equate them to the larger figure. So, even ways of presenting data have an effect on public perception,” she said.

Thomas then referred to the assertions made in a 2016 article for MailOnline, 'Living with the fallout of Chernobyl 30 years later'.

She said: “It takes an awful lot of an academic’s time trying to explain that this isn’t true. And we have Fukushima and what I believe were appalling headlines, and I told the Press that it’s their fault: They turned the Fukushima accident into a disaster.”

Dose and effect

On the point at which a hazard can be seen to have become a risk, Thomas said there is a lack of understanding among the general public between dose and effect, which she thinks has been caused by the linear, no-threshold dose hypothesis that radiation is dangerous at every level, which is not correct.

She referred to a study published by the Washington DC National Research Council in 2005, Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionising Radiation.

“If you expose each one of 100 Americans to 100 mSv of radiation, one would be likely to get cancer as a result. Exposure from Fukushima was way below this,” Thomas said. “Those who would get cancer from other causes was 42 and I’d be a damn sight more worried about the 42, especially when that one case could mean we make other mistakes in determining where our energy should come from.”

There is a need therefore to look at comparative health risks and putting them into a context understandable to the public, she said.

There is an increased risk of mortality of 2.8% from living in a megacity versus a small town, she said. From passive smoking the figure is 1.7%. Those figures contrast with 1.0% and 0.4% for exposure to, respectively, 250mSv and 100mSv from Chernobyl.

Risk can be minimised by informing the public of what to do in the event of an accident before an accident occurs, she said. This advice includes taking shelter inside buildings, orderly evacuation for the short term, minimising the consumption of local food rich in iodine (milk, leafy vegetables), and not to panic. The latter will result in many more casualties than the radiation exposure, Thomas said.


Leadership built on trust and public interaction built on trust are needed, she said. This involves those running a nuclear power plant, those regulating the industry, workers within the plant, and communicators separate to the industry or government all speaking openly about nuclear power. In addition, there are public figures who understand the energy debate and can communicate on the risks and benefits, who include, she said, Bill Gates and Michael Shellenberger.

In its own communication, the nuclear industry should not compete with wind and solar, since “diversity is key to a successful energy policy”, she said. All methods of energy generation have risks and benefits, she said. “I didn’t know about the radiation from wind and solar, but I do now, and I do know about toxic chemicals which scare me more than radiation does,” she added.

There is a need to balance the effects on our ecosystem with the risk of lack of energy, she said, since “everything pollutes to a degree”. The effects of CO2 and particulate pollution may be catastrophic for life on earth and not just humans, she said.

Thomas showed photographs taken of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - including European bison, elk, grey wolf, red fox, roe deer and the Eurasian lynx, among other species.

“If you take man out of the equation, this is what you get,” she said. “Radiation posed no problem to these animals at all; it was us who was stopping them [thriving in their natural habitat].”

Thomas told delegates: “Start a dialogue now with all levels in society about why nuclear matters. The internet means everyone has a voice and expects their voice to be heard; we need to get our message out there as effectively as the anti-nuclear brigade do. There’s a need to put real evidence-based risks into a context that [people] can relate to. And hearts and minds will only change by dialogue.”

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Help-the-public-understand-radiation,-advises-canc

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/12 10:02:33 (15 人讀取)

Belgian government approves funding for Myrrha

Belgium's Council of Ministers has approved EUR558 million (USD646 million) in funding for the Myrrha accelerator-driven research reactor at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre's (SCK-CEN's) site in Mol.

An artistic impression of how Myrrha may appear (Image: SCK-CEN)

SCK-CEN said the funding - approved at a meeting on 7 September - "will help carry out the first important part of Myrrha: building the first part of its particle accelerator and target facilities", known as the "Minerva" installation. The funding will be provided over the period 2019-2038, firstly to cover by 2026 both the investments of the Minerva installation, the studies and the development of the installation, and secondly the operating costs of the Minerva installation after 2027.

The government also approved the creation of an international non-profit-making body to be known as AISBL/IVZW Myrrha. This is a legal status adapted to large-scale projects financed by several foreign states.

"This decision will strengthen promotion and reception of foreign partners which are interested in the Myrrha project and its applications," SCK-CEN said.

Myrrha - Multipurpose Hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications - will be a sub-critical assembly relying on accelerated protons producing neutrons in the target to achieve periods of criticality in a low-enriched uranium core. It will be a 57 MWt accelerator-driven system in which a proton accelerator will deliver a 600 MeV proton beam to a liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) spallation target that is in turn coupled to a Pb-Bi cooled subcritical fast nuclear core.

It is intended to replace Belgium's ageing BR2 research reactor, and will be used in a range of research functions including the demonstration of the concept of transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in nuclear waste, as well as producing radioisotopes for medicine. Myrrha will also be used for conducting fundamental scientific research in areas such as nuclear physics, atomic physics, fundamental interactions, solid-state physics and nuclear medicine.

"Thanks to its unique and innovative nature, the research infrastructure will attract researchers from all over the world to Belgium and will train a new generation of experts to provide technological solutions to these major challenges," said SCK-CEN Director-General Eris van Walle.

The project forms part of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, and is one of three new research reactors forming the cornerstones of the European Research Area of Experimental Reactors, alongside the Jules Horowitz Reactor at Cadarache in France and the Pallas reactor at Petten in the Netherlands.

In 2010, the Belgian government gave the go-ahead for the construction of Myrrha. The country is to contribute 40% towards the EUR960 million investment the project will require. The Myrrha project is envisaged as a partnership of Belgium, the European Union, the European Investment Bank and other partners, with 70% of the funding from EU countries.

Hamid Aït Abderrahim, director of the Myrrha programme and deputy director general of SCK-CEN, said: "Thanks to our government's support, Myrrha has made great progress. I would like to thank everyone who assisted in obtaining this decision and who supported this project from the very beginning, in Belgium and abroad. The political, industrial and local authorities' support also contributed to this success and will remain crucial to complete the project."

Construction of the Myrrha reactor itself expected to begin in 2026, with full-operation from 2033.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Belgian-government-approves-funding-for-Myrrha

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/12 10:00:34 (13 人讀取)

IAEA completes Sudan nuclear infrastructure review

Sudan's government is strongly committed to developing the infrastructure needed for a safe, secure and peaceful nuclear power programme, an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts has found. The eight-day Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) mission was conducted at the government's invitation.

Anthony Stott hands over the INIR team's preliminary draft report to Musa Omer Abu Elgasim in Khartoum on 3 September (Image: M Ceyhan/IAEA)

Sudan wants to increase its installed electricity capacity to support socio-economic development, particularly in the industrial, agricultural and mining sectors. The government has projected that demand for electricity will more than double to around 8500 MWe by 2031. Of the country's 2015 electricity production of 13 TWh, 8 TWh was from hydro and 5 TWh from fossil fuels.

The INIR mission reviewed the status of nuclear infrastructure development using the Phase 1 criteria of the IAEA's Milestones Approach, a comprehensive method to assist countries that are considering or planning their first nuclear power plant which splits the activities necessary to establish the infrastructure for a nuclear power programme into three progressive phases of development. The end of Phase 1 marks the readiness of a country to make a knowledgeable commitment to a nuclear power programme.

The INIR team of IAEA staff and experts from Morocco, Slovenia and South Africa was hosted by Sudan's Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organisation (NEPIO), which is chaired by the undersecretary of the Ministry of Water Resources, Irrigation and Electricity (MWRIE).

Anthony Stott, operational lead of the IAEA's Nuclear Infrastructure Development Section, said "good discussions" had provided additional information to the team for each of the 19 infrastructure issues that are addressed during an INIR mission. "It is evident that there is a strong commitment from the government of Sudan to developing the infrastructure needed for a safe, secure and peaceful nuclear power programme," he said.

The INIR team said NEPIO serves as an effective mechanism for involving a wide and comprehensive range of national stakeholders in the relevant activities. Sudan has enacted a comprehensive nuclear law and established a nuclear regulatory authority, and the country has completed a significant number of studies on different nuclear infrastructure issues which contributed to the development of a prefeasibility report. The INIR team noted that some of those studies may need to e reviewed and updated to better prepare the country for the next stages of the nuclear power programme.

Recommendations and suggestions from the INIR team, highlighting areas where further action would benefit Sudan, include: finalising national policies to support the nuclear power programme; strengthening plans to join international legal instruments and assessing and developing the country's legal and regulatory framework; implementing plans to support the development of key organisations and to enhance public awareness about the nuclear power programme; and further analysing the preparedness of the electrical grid and approaches to funding, financing and radioactive waste management.

The team also identified good practices that would benefit other countries considering the introduction of nuclear power in the areas of national position and site and supporting facilities.

Musa Omer Abu Elgasim, undersecretary of MWRIE and chairman of the NEPIO, said the government is committed to developing the nuclear power programme in compliance with international legal instruments and IAEA safety standards and security guidance. "Sudan has spent more than a decade developing infrastructure for its nuclear power programme, where nuclear safety and security are embedded in every aspect of activities, with excellent support from the IAEA," he said, adding his assurance that Sudan is "open" to implementing the INIR mission's recommendations and suggestions.

Sudan in May 2016 signed a framework agreement with China National Nuclear Corporation for construction of one or two 600 MWe nuclear power reactors, and formulation of a nuclear cooperation roadmap for the next ten years and in 2017 signed a memorandum of understanding on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy with Rosatom.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/IAEA-completes-Sudan-nuclear-infrastructure-review

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/12 9:58:46 (15 人讀取)

California to be carbon neutral by 2045

California's governor has signed a bill setting a 100% clean energy goal for the state and issued an executive order setting a target to achieve carbon neutrality, both by 2045.

Governor Brown signs the bill (Image: Office of Governor Brown)

Senate Bill 100, signed yesterday by Governor Edmund Brown, increases the amount of electricity to be supplied by renewables to 60% by 2030 - up from the current target of 50% by 2030 - with all of its retail electricity supply to come from renewable energy and zero-carbon resources by 2045.

The bill also requires the state's Public Utilities Commission and its Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission to take steps to ensure that a transition to a zero-carbon electric system for California does not cause or contribute to greenhouse gas emission increases elsewhere in the western grid.

The executive order reaches beyond the electricity sector, which represents 16% of California's GHG emissions, directing the state to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045 and net negative GHG emissions after that. This will require large investments across all sectors - energy, transportation, industrial, commercial and residential buildings, agriculture, and various forms of sequestration including natural and working lands, Brown said.

"This bill and the executive order put California on a path to meet the goals of Paris and beyond. It will not be easy. It will not be immediate. But it must be done," Brown said.

"California is committed to doing whatever is necessary to meet the existential threat of climate change. This bill, and others I will sign this week, help us go in that direction. But have no illusions, California and the rest of the world have miles to go before we achieve zero-carbon emissions."

Two nuclear units at Pacific Gas & Electric's Diablo Canyon plant currently generate 8.7% of California's electricity which, according to the Nuclear Energy Institute, is 16% of the state's emission-free electricity. PG&E in June 2016 announced that the Diablo Canyon units would close in 2024 and 2025.

About 26.9% of the state's generation currently comes from hydro, with 26.9% from renewables and 43.3% from natural gas.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/California-to-be-carbon-neutral-by-2045

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/10 9:40:26 (13 人讀取)

Innovation is key to industry's resilience, says Westinghouse

Westinghouse Electric Company is starting the next phase in its long history with one key message: The nuclear industry, which has always provided safe, clean and reliable energy, needs innovation now more than ever before.

José Gutiérrez speaking today (Image: World Nuclear Association)

Speaking at the World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018 in London, Westinghouse President and CEO José Gutiérrez described the company’s strategy following its recent exit from bankruptcy protection, while Michele DeWitt, the company’s senior vice president for nuclear fuel, described some of the innovative technologies it is working on.

Westinghouse Electric Company LLC was formed in 1998 from the nuclear power division of the original Westinghouse Electric Corporation that was founded in 1886. In 1957, it supplied the world’s first pressurised water reactor - the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, which was in operation until 1982. Today, Westinghouse technology is used in more than half of the 450 reactors in operation around the world and 131 of them run on its fuel. In July, the world's first AP1000, a Westinghouse reactor design, achieved grid connection and power generation at unit 1 of the Sanmen nuclear power plant in China.

Westinghouse filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection with US courts in March 2017 to enable it to undergo strategic restructuring. The filing affected only its US operations, which included projects to construct four AP1000 reactors at two sites, Vogtle in Georgia, and VC Summer in South Carolina. On 4 January, it was announced that Brookfield Business Partners had agreed to acquire 100% of Westinghouse from Japan's Toshiba Corporation for about USD4.6 billion. On 1 August, Westinghouse announced completion of the sale, which marked its emergence from Chapter 11 as a reorganised company.

Gutiérrez told delegates at the symposium today it was “really remarkable” it had emerged from bankruptcy protection within 16 months.

“We’ve streamlined our operations and reduced overhead costs to drive efficiencies and we’ve done that whilst also expanding our base business, which means the company continues to be an industry leader.” He added: “And the best way to support the operating fleet and also to build new ones is through innovation.”

Chinese success

Gutiérrez described the AP1000 at Sanmen 1 as “the world’s first true Gen-III+ nuclear power plant” and referred to praise of the technology from Wang Binghua, chairman of State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) at the symposium yesterday.

“The news coming from China is that the unit is working as planned, that the most advanced technology in the world is succeeding,” Gutiérrez said, adding that all first-of-a-kind challenges connected with the design have been solved.

Binghua told delegates that a passive safety test had been successfully conducted at Sanmen 1, proving its passive safety capabilities.

“Last week we had five full days of a full power loading operation. Then the reactor was suddenly shut down manually and then all the operating four reactor coolant pump were shut down manually. Then started the heat exchange. We took 12 minutes to transfer the residue heat to the used fuel pool. We were so impressed by this passive safety feature which supported the transfer of residual heat to the used fuel pool. We appreciate very much the outstanding engineering design from Westinghouse.”

Gutiérrez noted that three of the four AP1000s under construction in China - Sanmen units 1 and 2 and Haiyang unit 1 - had been connected to the grid. Connection of Haiyang 2 is expected next week.

Mingguang Zheng, senior vice president of SNPTC, today gave delegates the scheduled dates for Haiyang 2 as 14 September for grid connection and 11 December for the start of commercial operation. Commercial operation for Sanmen 1 and 2 are expected, he said, on 28 September and 8 November, respectively. For Haiyang 1, this is expected on 25 October.


Westinghouse continues to learn the lessons of its projects and to innovate for one reason, Gutiérrez said. “We believe that nuclear energy is more valuable to the world energy mix than ever before.”

A study released last week from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Initiative, states that the challenge of climate change will be harder and costlier to solve unless nuclear energy is included in the energy mix.

Referring to this study, Gutiérrez said: “Examples in the EU and the US show that when a nuclear power plant is shut down it is replaced by coal and gas and not by renewables”, making it impossible to achieve climate goals. The fact that nuclear does not emit greenhouse gases is critically important, he said, for example to quality of life in China and India.


Westinghouse designs and manufactures more types of nuclear fuel than any other supplier, DeWitt told delegates at the symposium yesterday, and currently supplies nuclear fuel to one-third of operating reactors, including pressurised water, boiling water and advanced gas-cooled reactors.

She said it is crucial the fuel manufacturing industry “delivers what matters” by providing the lowest fuel cycle costs; operational flexibility; higher burnup capability; supply diversity; accident tolerant products; and robust fuel performance.

“The landscape in which we operate is changing rapidly and our ability to innovate is critical,” she said. The nuclear industry faces competition from renewables and natural gas; utility customers are increasingly facing the need to shift their nuclear assets from baseload to load follow; operating fleet life extensions are under way; and new build reactors are based on new technologies.

“I believe that our industry has a bright future ahead and the ability to innovate will be the key to unlocking that success. We will develop new ways of thinking about challenges, invest in transformational technologies from both inside and outside the industry and continue to develop new products and processes while focusing on providing unparalleled delivery to our customers. We must deliver what matters,” she said.

Headquartered in Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania, Westinghouse is present in 19 countries and understands that risk management and security of supply for economic and national security reasons is a growing priority globally, DeWitt said.

“Our nuclear industry’s future relies on our collective ability to operate both the existing fleet and new build in a manner that leverages the asset investment to a greater degree than ever before. As industry needs evolve, nuclear fuel providers are being called upon to deliver more, without compromising safety or reliability. The lowest fuel cycle cost possible, an increased degree of operational flexibility, higher burnup capability to generate more power for fewer modules, diversity of supply, accident tolerant products to generate resilience and survivability in beyond design basis accidents, all in addition to robust and leak-free fuel performance.”

Westinghouse’s commitment to new technology is “shared and encouraged” by its new owners, Brookfield, and the company is “investing for the future”, she said.


Some of its key innovations include its “game-changing” EnCore fuel, she said.

“Our EnCore family of products provides not only enhanced accident tolerance, but also improved fuel cycle economics. It’s being developed to deliver design basis tolerance safety margins and withstands far more serious conditions than today’s fuel.

“Having fuel that can withstand the most severe accident scenarios is game-changing for utilities. The right fuel can also bring significant plant and operational savings by improving fuel cycle economics and enabling longer fuel cycles.”

Westinghouse expects its coated cladding and advanced pellets could be provided in lead test assemblies by 2021 and in reload quantities from 2023, she said. In addition, silicon carbide test assemblies will be rolled out in 2022 with reload quantities beginning in 2027.

The company expects to deliver a lead test assembly of its TRITON11 boiling water reactor fuel to Finland’s TVO for insertion in Olkiluoto unit 2 in January next year and to unit 3 of Swedish OKG’s Oskarshamn plant in June the same year. It is targeting full reload introduction in Europe and the USA in 2023 and 2024, respectively, she said.

The company is also meeting customer demand for diversification and security of supply with its advanced VVER fuel designs, she said. Westinghouse produces fuel for VVER-1000 reactors at its facility in Västerås Sweden. It is currently providing fuel to six of Ukraine’s 15 power reactors, which will increase to seven at the beginning of 2021.

“Recently we were pleased to join the celebration for the loading of South Ukraine NPP unit 3 for the full core of Westinghouse fuel. This is the first unit in Ukraine to operate with 100% Westinghouse VVER fuel.

“We are also actively working with other customers to expand our VVER-1000 supply and will provide six lead test assemblies featuring our next generation VVER design to Temelín unit 1 in the Czech Republic. And we’ve also led a consortium to develop a conceptual VVER-440 fuel design and determine the establishment of manufacturing and a supply chain to fabricate and transport VVER-440 fuel assemblies,” she said.

Another innovation Westinghouse is exploring is 3D printing, she added. “We can produce components for complex geometric and design margins that would otherwise not be possible. 3D printing has also enabled us to accelerate the development process by shortening the time to develop prototypes and bring these products to market.”

Its BlueRad camera assists with fuel assembly visual inspections “whilst providing state-of-the-art optical quality for underwater inspections,” she said.

Quiver Fuel Rod Storage, another product it has developed, is “a simple and safe system” of handling the storage of failed PWR and BWR fuel rod fragments, DeWitt said, adding that its size allows it to be handled in the same way a PWR or BWR fuel assembly would be.

The company is also focusing on innovation software to enhance safety margins, support flexible operations and improve modelling and fuel performance, she said.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Innovation-is-key-to-nuclear-Industry,-says-Westin

發表人 nicenter 於 2018/9/10 9:35:43 (10 人讀取)

Electric vehicles and opportunities for nuclear energy

The electrification of transport could potentially offer many opportunities for nuclear generation, Brandon Munro told the World Nuclear Association Symposium 2018 in London today.

Brandon Munro tells delegates about EV opportunities (Image: World Nuclear Association)

The acceleration in global sales of electric vehicles (EVs) over the past six years is a key litmus test signalling the reality of this shift, the CEO of Bannerman Resources said. The initial penetration of EVs into the world economy has been driven by incentives supporting their use, and by 2050 they will be "baked in" by bans on vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE), he said. However, in the meantime, the next phase of uptake will be consumer led, driven by the features and benefits of EVs.

EVs offer engineering benefits with less moving parts than ICE vehicles, with higher efficiency, lower running costs, CO2 emission reductions - provided they are powered from a decarbonised grid, noise pollution reductions, and no exhaust emissions. These benefits will shift consumer perception of EVs, he said.

Challenges are the high upfront costs compared to ICE vehicles - although running costs are lower; consumer anxiety about the range of the vehicle; and standardisation in charging availability, which will be important to achieve a widespread uptake of EVs, Munro said. Different charging scenarios - and the time taken to charge a vehicle - will be key, and will have profound impacts on the electricity grid.

Currently, EVs are charged either by "slow" charging at private homes or public charging points, or rapid DC charging at public charging points. Flash charging - where an overhead charger provides a short but intense burst of charge - is very attractive for electric bus routes, where a charging can take place when the bus is at a stop, providing enough capacity to enable the vehicle to reach the next charge point, and is already in existence.

The next development in this area will be in-road charging built into the road surface, where vehicles can pick up charge at points along a route. There is also a possibility to use EVs to provide electricity storage and demand-side management, harnessing the electricity stored in the batteries of idle vehicles to "crowdsource" the grid.

The need to power EVs from a decarbonised grid provides opportunities for nuclear, Munro said, with policy benefits linked to clean energy sources. Growth scenarios in the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Global EV Outlook 2018 see global electricity consumption from EVs reaching 404 TWh (New Policies scenario) and 928 TWh (EV30@30 scenario) by 2030, with China projected to lead the way as its currently relatively small transportation fleet grows and adopts EV technology as standard.

It has already been observed that with current mobile charging, EV charge demand peaks in the morning and evening, adding extra pressure on peak electricity demands at times when renewable energy sources, notably solar, will be less available or electricity stores will be depleted. Home charging, typically overnight will deplete overnight resources, also supports the need for baseload generation, as do the future options of flash and in-road charging.

By 2030, under the IEA's EV30@30 scenario, 25 additional 1000 MWe reactors would be needed just to support the needs of EVs, Munro said. The nuclear energy industry should respond to this opportunity by anticipating the coming electrification of transport, he said, ensuring that nuclear is positioned with renewables as the clean energy source to power EVs and supporting charging options reliant on baseload generation.

The nuclear industry should take a distinct approach for each key market - in-road charging could make transport routes a prime location for SMRs - and should lobby for the grid resilience that a decarbonised transport sector will need, he said.

Nuclear must join renewables as the obvious EV energy source, Munro said. "Electrification of transport - and other forms of electrification - offer us very special opportunities to both communicate the advantages of nuclear and to build the Harmony objective," he said.

Researched and written by World Nuclear News

source: http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Electric-vehicles-and-nuclear-energy

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